Tag Archives: turkish

Enforcement and Recognition of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Turkey

This article is aimed at explaining current provision and practice of enforcement and Recognition of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Turkey. New York Convention and Turkish Private Law and Procedure Act (Called MÖHUK in Turkey, International Private Law and Procedure Act) related to enforcement of foreign arbitral awards are the main provisions governing terms of subject concerned. It is also noteworthy to mention that according to Turkish Constitution, international treaties have direct effect in Turkish Law based on article 90. Article concerned states that:

“International agreements duly put into effect have the force of law. No appeal to the Constitutional Court shall be made with regard to these agreements, on the grounds that they are unconstitutional. (Sentence added on May 7, 2004; Act No. 5170) In the case of a conflict between international agreements, duly put into effect, concerning fundamental rights and freedoms and the laws due to differences in provisions on the same matter, the provisions of international agreements shall prevail.”

As can be understood from the provision above, in case of a contradiction between provisions of national legislation and international treaty, provisions of international agreements shall prevail. In consideration of enforcement of foreign arbitration awards under Turkish Law, provisions of New York Convention have priority in relation to implementation of foreign awards rather than Turkish National Legislation. Thus, if New York Convention’s provisions contradict with Turkish Legislation, New York Convention shall be taken into account as a law which has priority effect. Previously, prior to New York Convention’s entry into force Turkish International Private Law had played so much important role for foreign awards. (The New York Convention came into force in Turkey on 30th September 1992)

Therefore, enforcement of foreign arbitral awards will be governed by New York Convention as a priority rather than Turkish International Private Law. And in that regard, Article 3 of the New York Convention provides that “each contracting State shall recognize arbitral awards as binding and enforce them in accordance with the rules of procedure of the territory where the award is relied upon, under the conditions laid down in the following articles.”

Determination of Competent Court and Jurisdiction of the court for Law Suits in the field of enforcement of foreign arbitral awards

Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards

Article 60- (1) Final and executable or binding upon the parties foreign arbitral awards may be subject to enforcement.

(2) The enforcement of a foreign arbitral award shall be requested by a petition from the Court of First Instance mutually designated by the parties in writing. In the absence of such agreement, the competent court shall be the court at the domicile of the person in Turkey against whom the award is rendered, or in the absence of domicile, the person’s place of habitual residence, and in the absence thereof, the court at the location of the property that may be subject to execution.

According to article 60/2 International Private Law of Turkey, component court is Asliye Hukuk Mahkemesi (First Instance Court). Additionally, the court must consider this fact as ex officio under Article 1 of Turkish Civil Procedure Law. In case, lawsuit is filed in the court which does not fall into context of this provision, then the court must reject the lawsuit based on the provision concerned.

The court is only obliged to detect the criteria’s of arbitral award’s enforcement. Accordingly, the subject of these types of lawsuits cannot be regarded as “commercial cases” in doctrine. Unless the case is not totally dealing with copyright and maritime law.

As can be seen from the article 60/2, jurisdiction of the court will be determined based on the presence of an agreement related to the jurisdiction of the court. And “In the absence of such agreement, the competent court shall be the court at the domicile of the person in Turkey against whom the award is rendered, or in the absence of domicile, the person’s place of habitual residence, and in the absence thereof, the court at the location of the property that may be subject to execution.

Court Fees Under the Terms of Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Turkey

The court charges comprise four type of levies4: application charge, charge for sittings(charged from the party caused the adjournment of the sittings)  , charge for decision and also for copies of decision and appeal charges . The charges for judgment and writ can be assessed either in fixed terms-as lump sum for non-monetary disputes , or based on certain rates calculated over the nominal value of the dispute.

In arbitral award enforcement cases, court fee will be %0.68,32 of disputed amount. In other words, claim for 1000 Turkish Lira will be subjected to 6,83 lira will be the court fee of the case. It is also important to note that, there will be also extra court fees which will be requested from the court as mentioned above such as application charge, postal and expert (if it is requested) expenses.

Cautio Judicatum Solvi- Security Payment

Article 48 of Turkish International Private Law Act;

(1) Foreign individuals or legal persons who file a lawsuit, intervene in a lawsuit, or initiate execution proceedings before a Turkish court shall be required to provide a security whose amount shall be determined by the court to cover the expenses of the legal procedures and proceedings as well as losses or damages of the other party.

(2) The court may exempt the plaintiff, intervener, or applicant for execution from providing a security, on a reciprocity basis

As can be understood from the provision mentioned above, foreigners who are seeking to enforce arbitral awards in favor of them are subjected to remit security payment to Turkish Court in case of lack of reciprocity.

 In case that judicial assistance agreement or relevant convention’s ratifications lacks between Turkey and third countries, there is a security deposit obligation (Cautio Judicatum Solvi) for foreign legal entities or real persons who intends to initiate a lawsuit or enforcement procedure in Turkey. (Article 97 of the Turkish Code of Civil Procedure and Article 48 of the Code of Private International Law and International Civil Procedure). There is no certain provision laying down the percentage of amount related to deposit, however in practice courts determines %15 of disputed amount as a security deposit.
A Judicial Assistance Agreement Exists between Turkey and the Countries Mentioned Below
Germany, N. Cyprus, Albania, Kuwait, Austria, Lithuania, Azerbaijan, Hungary Bulgaria, Macedonia, Czech Republic, Algeria ,Moldova, China, Mongolia, Morocco, Uzbekistan, Georgia, Poland, India, Romania, Croatia, Tajikistan, Iraq, Tunisia, Jordan, Yugoslavia, United Kingdom, Ukraine, Switzerland, Italy,Kazakhstan.
There are also countries exempt from security deposit due to reciprocity principle in Turkish Private State Law Act. These countries do not apply any security deposit to Turkish citizens and legal entities in case of debt recovery proceeding, accordingly Turkey does not seek any security deposit obligation for mentioned below countries: Russia, Egypt, Chile, Finland, Peru, Libya, Syria.

Also it needed to be born in mind that member states of De Hague Convention on Civil Procedure is also entitled to reciprocity.

Remittance of Security deposit can be provided with several ways such as remittance of the amount to Turkish central bank account in foreign currency, guarantee letter from a bank, pledge on a real state, guarantee letter approved by a Turkish notary and bill of exchange. In the end of case or enforcement procedure, security deposit must be refund to creditor by the court. Real reason behind security deposit is to protect Turkish debtor for possible damages by foreign entities during procedure.

The Law Applying to the Procedure of Arbitral Award Enforcement Cases in Turkey

“Petition and Review Procedure

Article 61-

(1) A party requesting enforcement of a foreign award shall attach the copies of the following documents depending on the number of the other parties:

  1. a) The original or duly certified copy of the arbitration agreement or arbitration clause,
  2. b) The original or duly certified copy of the final and executable or binding upon the parties arbitral award,
  3. c) Translations and duly certified copies of the documents listed in (a) and (b), above.

(2) The court shall apply Articles 55, 56 and 57 of this Chapter by analogy with regard to the recognition of arbitral awards. “

As it is indicated in first paragraph of a, b, c section of article 61, and relevant documents must be submitted to the court along with the lawsuit petition. In the enforcement procedure, preparation of the case sources requires written documents. It is noteworthy to mention that the court is also obliged to review oral proceedings. Therefore, judicial case procedure consists of written proceedings (submission of petitions, response petitions) and oral proceedings (hearings, interrogation)

Lawsuit petition is required for filing a case at Turkish Courts. The petition must contain following information to be approved by the court for the continuation of the case.

  1. A) Name of the Court
  2. B) First and Surnames of Applicants/ and Defendants and addresses
  3. C) ID number of Applicant (If applicant is a Turkish citizen)
  4. D) The name and address of the attorney at law
  5. E) Disputed amount and subject of the case
  6. F) Summary of cases with numbered paragraph
  7. G) Evidences and other proof methods
  8. H) Legal Reasons

İ) Demand from the court

  1. J) Signature of applicant

It is important to bear in mind that the interest stemming from debt must be explicitly mentioned in the lawsuit petition.

Under Article 325 of the Turkish Code of Civil Procedure, all documents submitted to the court have to be translated. According to the Turkish of Civil Procedure the translation has to be made by a sworn translator and certified by a public notary. Turkish Consulate abroad are also authorized to certify translations. [1]

  1. Submission of Lawsuit Petition

Two original copy of lawsuit petition must be submitted to the court. One of the copy must be preserved in the case file and the other must be submitted to the defendant.

The applicant must remit the court fee and postal cost along with the lawsuit petition.

The case can be filed anytime, even during judicial vacation it is possible to take a lawsuit action.

  1. The law which applies to the procedure

“The court shall apply Articles 55, 56 and 57 of this Chapter by analogy with regard to the recognition of arbitral awards. “.

In second paragraph of the article, procedure that the court must follow is stipulated. It is important to note that Articles 55, 56 and 57 of Turkish Civil Procedure Code does not exist anymore due to new code which is entered into force in 2011. According to New Turkish Civil Procedure Code numbered 6100, relevant provisions are stipulated under the articles between 316 – 322.

Under these provisions, procedure which applies to foreign arbitral award enforcement is determined as “simple proceeding”.  Simple court proceeding method in litigation is limited only with two petition exchange period among the applicant and the respondent instead of 4. It is noteworthy to stress the Constitution Court’s Decision on this matter. Bakırköy 13. İş Mahkemesi (13th Tribunal of Labor First Instance Court) decided not to consider the 3rd and 4th replies of the parties due to the feature of simple court proceeding method. Upon the decision of first instance court, applicant applied to Turkish Constitution Court based on violation of right of his fair trial due to disregard of replication. Constitution Court’s Decision numbered 2011/125 Esas , Karar 2012/46 date on 22.3.2012 gave a judgment by refusing the applicant claim. Accordingly, the court decided that “simple proceeding” method which applies to the cases cannot be regarded as violation of right of fair trial due to the fact that method’s purpose is to speed up the judicial process.

Prof. Şanlı stated that in Turkish Law, the prohibition of reviewing the merits in recognition is unanimously accepted. In Turkish law there is a prohibition of reviewing the merits”. [2]

Additionally Prof Nomer also stated that “as well as recognition of the foreign court decisions, the foreign substantive correctness of the arbitral awards cannot be reviewed. The principle to prohibit “revision au fond also applies to enforcement of the arbitral award. The exception of that principle occurs when there is a contradiction to public order in the arbitrator award as well as recognizing enforcement of foreign court decision. [3]

As can be understood from these statements, revision au fond principle constitutes as an important factor in enforcement of foreign awards in Turkey.

Grounds for Dismissal of Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Award

 “Article 62-

(1) The court shall dismiss the enforcement request of a foreign arbitral award, if,

  1. a) An arbitration agreement is not executed or arbitration clause does not exist in the main agreement,
  2. b) The arbitral award is contrary to public morality or public order,
  3. c) It is not possible to settle the dispute subject to the arbitral award by way of arbitration under Turkish law,

ç) One of the parties has not been duly represented before the arbitrators and has not expressly accepted the acts concluded thereafter,

  1. d) The party against whom the enforcement of the arbitral award is requested has not been duly notified of the appointment of arbitrators or has been deprived of his/her right to make claim and defense,
  2. e) The arbitration agreement or clause is invalid pursuant to the governing law designated by the parties, or in the absence thereof, pursuant to the law of the place where the arbitral award is rendered,
  3. f) The appointment of the arbitrators or the procedure applied by the arbitrators violates the agreement of the parties, or in the absence thereof, the law of state where the arbitral award is rendered,
  4. g) The arbitral award has been rendered on an issue that is not included in the arbitration agreement or arbitration clause or exceeds the limits of the agreement or the clause (only the exceeding part),
  5. h) The arbitral award is not final, enforceable, or binding under the governing law or the governing procedure or the law of state where it was rendered or it is annulled by the competent authority in the place where the award is rendered.

(2) The burden of proof regarding issues addressed in the paragraphs (ç), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (h) above, lies on the party against whom enforcement is requested. “

As can be seen in article 62 of Turkish International Private Law, grounds for dismissal for enforcement of the awards is stipulated. This provision is one of the most crucial part for foreign award enforcement.

If the Turkish Courts rejects the enforcement of the foreign award, this award cannot be enforced in Turkey any longer. Recognition of such an award cannot be asked for either since recognition and enforcement of awards are subject to the same conditions and rules. This having been noted, in the case where a foreign award is not enforceable in Turkey, there may still be some remedies available under Turkish Law. The Claimant may ask the Turkish Courts to decide on the merits of the dispute. In such circumstances, the Claimant may rely on Article on 1.1 of the New York Convention which provides that the arbitration agreement became inoperative and therefore subject to the jurisdiction of the national court. [4]

Reciprocity matter must be taken into account for enforcement in case that award is given by a tribunal which is not member state of New York Convention. In that case, it is important to note that most of the countries of the world has ratified the convention. On the other hand, Turkey has also ratified judicial assistance treaties with some specific countries. These treaties not only encompass reciprocity matter with states concerned and also enforcement procedure which shall be applied to arbitral awards are stipulated in these mutual treaties. Austria (Articles 20-21) , Poland (Articles 19-24), Algeria (Articles 20-27) ,Iraq (79-85), Azerbaijan (19-24), China (21-26), Georgia (19-24), Albania (19-24) Kazakhstan (Articles 21-26) , Mongolia (Articles 19-24) Lithuania (Articles  19-23) have mutual agreement covering procedure of arbitral award enforcement with Turkey.

  1. Violation of Public Order

In consideration of this article’s purpose, it is aimed to be touched on subjects of foreign award enforcement roughly. On the other hand, violation of public order subject is a broad concept to be explained due to Turkey’s rich precedent related to this subject.

As in other legal systems, public policy is considered as an undefined area of Turkish law. A great number of legal context in foreign awards can be found to be against Turkish public policy and, as such, would preclude successful enforcement of a foreign arbitration award. The most significant example for present purposes is that of completion of service of proceedings to the defendant party.

Pursuant to Article V (2) (a) of the New York Convention, the Turkish Courts may refuse to recognize or enforce a foreign award if the recognition or enforcement of the award would be contrary to Turkish Public Policy. Article V provides that the application for enforcement may be refused on the ground that the “recognition or enforcement of the award would be contrary to the public policy of the country where recognition and enforcement is sought.” This basis of rejection has generated the most discussion and litigation, and often overlaps with other grounds such article V(1)(b) (due process, Article V(1)(d) (improper procedure or composition of tribunal), and Article V(2)(a)(non-arbitrability.) [5]

Foreign Award Enforcement Judgment and Its Effects

A final judgment cannot be retried. The plaintiff cannot sue again on the same claim. This is called res judicata effect of a judgment. Exceptionally, however, the losing party may demand the reopening of the proceedings under C.C.Pr ( Yargılamanın İadesi) . [6]

Appeal

A party wishing to appeal must file a petition of appeal within fifteen days after service of the judgment. The members of the chamber and the rapporteur examine the file.

 

Summary

New York Convention has a main role in foreign award enforcement in Turkey. Its principles and provisions must be taken into account by a Turkish Judge elementarily. Accordingly, all internal legislation of Turkey related to foreign award enforcement must be convenient to the provisions of the convention basis on the direct effect of international agreements in Turkey under Turkish Constitution. Therefore, this situation gives predictability regarding enforcement of an award for foreign parties.

Av. Gökhan Cindemir

He graduated from Anatolian High School of Karadeniz Eregli, after his graduation he studied in Belgium with AFS intercultural exchange program. He obtained his law licence degree from Marmara University of Law Faculty. During his university education, he participated in Philip C. Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition on behalf of the Marmara University. After his admission to Istanbul Bar Association in 2009, he obtained master degree (LL.M) from Gent University / Belgium in the field of European and Comparative law. His master research was about Freedom of Establishment In Relation With Turkey and EEC in the frame of Ankara Agreement.He is specialized in International Private Law, European Law, Real Estate Law, Penal Law and Tort Law. He speaks fluent English and has good command of Dutch and French. He is also authorized as a solicator, barrister, CIArb Associate (ACIArb).

[1] Arbitration Law of Turkey : Practice and Procedure , Author : Ziya Akinci , page 74, Paragraph 4

[2] Şanlı, C. Uluslararası Ticari Akitlerin Hazırlanması ve Uyuşmazlıkların Çözüm Yolları , 3rd ed. Beta, Istanbul 2005 P. 181.

[3] See Normer, P. 422

[4] Ziya akinci – 178 , 179

[5] Ziya Akınci

[6] Tuğrul Ansay & Don Wallace JR, 6th Ed, Wolters Kluwer Law and Business ,Pages 228 – 229

Consensual Divorce in Turkey ( Uncontested Divorce )

Attorney Gokhan Cindemir

Contact : cindemir@cindemir.av.tr

Article 166/3 of Turkish Civil Code permits a divorce by mutual consent under specific conditions. Accordingly, spouses can divorce based on a mutual agreement concluded by themselves. In case of a contract in contemplation of divorce, the judge must divorce the parties.

Consensual divorce is the most cost effective and quick procedure for separations. It also benefits to spouses in moral way due to lack of long and stressful duration.

The component court for divorce is in Turkey are family courts “Aile mahkemeleri). In case that family courts are lacking in the place of spouses, then the case must be filed in “Asliye Mahkemeleri” (court of first instance).

There are conditions for consensual divorce. If the conditions don’t fit your situation, you need to follow contested way of divorce instead of uncontested divorce procedure.

  • At least 1 year marriage is required for mutual consent (consensual) divorce.
  • Application to the court by together. Or acceptance of the divorce by defendant spouse upon one of spouse’s application to the court.
  • Hearing participation by the spouses themselves. In other words, judge must hear spouses directly about the settlement protocol’s approval. The purpose of this rule is to comprehend the wife’s consent is real or it is given under pressure of the husband or her family. Accordingly, judge must hear consent of spouses’ will related to consensual divorce / separation. Therefore, participation of spouses to hearing is crucial and obligatory. In case of lack of presence of the spouses, the judge will reject the case. (In case that the spouses or one of spouse is not able to speak and understand Turkish Language, then simultaneous translator certified by authorizes must provide translation service in the court.
  • Lastly, judge’s reviews regarding the provisions of settlement protocol is important. The provisions concerning guardianship, children, financial issues in the settlement agreement will be also reviewed by Turkish Judge for approval of agreement’s fairness.

The settlement agreement must be convenient with Turkish Contract Law (Turkish Obligations Act). Accordingly, there must not be any provision in the agreement which is against public policy, general moral values. In agreement, there must be will of divorce from the spouses. In case that children exists from the marriage, provision related to guardianship, visiting schedule, alimony and compensation requests must be reflected to the agreement. Personal assets (movable such as car, personal belongings and immovable such as apartment, building, field) , expenses of the court and attorney fee must be also obligatory elements which must be reflected to the settlement agreement. Lastly and certainly, spouse’s signatures are very important in the document.

As can be understood, divorce with uncontested procedure without legal help is difficult choice. Therefore, we strongly suggest a lawyer assistance to your situation, especially in the course of conclusion of a settlement agreement it is very important.

In case that court will reject the divorce case, spouses must wait for 3 years due to the Turkish Civil Code’s stipulation. After 3 years later of rejection, spouses can apply for divorce again.

Uncontested divorce procedure is very quick because 95 percent of the cases finish in first hearing. The first hearing is determined upon application to the court with divorce petition (including settlement agreement) based on settlement separation. And courts generally set an hearing 2-3 months after the application via petition (in big cities).  Accordingly, we can say with 3 months, spouses can divorce.

Court fees for this procedure is approximately 200 USD. And also if one of spouse or spouses are foreigner, translation expenses for protocol will be another expense. Certified translator’s hearing participation is approximately 100 USD.  According to Tariffs of Istanbul Bar Association on Attorney’s Services Fee dated 2015, 1900 USD is recommended fee for lawyers as their attorney fee.

divorce in turkey, divorce turkey, divorce laws in turkey, divorce law in turkey, turkish divorce laws, turkish divorce procedure

Gökhan Cindemir , Attorney At Law

After he completed his high school degree in Turkey, he went to Belgium with AFSintercultural exchange program and completed his high school degree in Belgium. Upon his return to Turkey, he obtained his law licence degree from Marmara University of Law Faculty of Istanbul, Turkey. During his university education, he had participated in Philip C.Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition on behalf of Marmara University, Istanbul. He became member of Istanbul Bar Association, then after he had been granted to a master’s degree, LL.M by Gent University of Belgium in the field of European and Comparative law. He completed his one year millitary duty at Legal Affairs Department of Central Command Headquartes in Ankara with Lieutenant Rank. He is specialized in all matters concerning International Private Law, European Law, Family Law, Employement Law, Real Estate Law, Penal Law and Tort Law. He speaks fluent English and has good command of Dutch and French. He is also authorized as a solicator, barrister.

gokhan@cindemir.av.tr

mobile 00905325680647

»

turkish divorce law divorce laws in turkey turkish divorce procedure

divorce laws in turkey, divorce law in turkey, turkish divorce laws, turkish divorce procedure

»

Statute of Limitations Related to Personal Injury Cases in Turkey

contact : cindemir@cindemir.av.tr

Phone : 00905325680647

The claims of compensation because of a unlawful act cease after a certain period of time. Normally the term is 2 years running from the date on which the damaged person recieved knowledge of damage and of the person who had caused the damage. This may not be longer than ten years from the date when the act causing the damage occured. (New Code of Obligation of Turkey entered into force in 2011,  article 72)

There is one important issue to consider in Turkish Law related to statute of limitations of tortious acts ( in other words acts stemming from Personal Injury). In case that wrongful act causing the damage also became an issue of a criminal offence , Statute of Limitations applying to Criminal Offence would be taken into account by civil court dealing with personal injury case.

For example, in case that a person died by a brick which is fell out from the building, this negligence will be an issue of both civil and criminal case.  In these situations, we need to consider time period stated in criminal act and in contract law of Turkey. If criminal act’s time period is longer then we need to take into account to criminal act provision related to this issue. To make it more concrete, according to Turkish Criminal Law, statute of limitation applies to killing of a person by negligence is 15 years, thus case can be filed within 15 years due to characteristic of offence.

Turkish Criminal Act, Article 66 states statute of limitations as below:

(1) Unless otherwise is provided in the law, public action is dismissed upon lapse of ;

  1. a) Thirty years in offenses requiring punishment of heavy life imprisonment,
  2. b) Twenty-five years in offenses requiring punishment of life imprisonment,
  3. c) Twenty years in offenses requiring punishment of imprisonment not less than twenty years,
  4. d) Fifteen years in offenses requiring punishment of imprisonment more than five years and less than twenty years,
  5. e) Eight years in offenses requiring punishment of imprisonment or punitive fine not more than five years

(2) Public action is dismissed upon lapse of half of the a/m periods if the convict completed the age of ten but not yet attained the age of fifteen at the commission date of the offense; as for the convicts who completed the age of fifteen but not attained the age of eighteen, public action is dismissed upon lapse of one third of the a/m periods.

(3) In determination of statute of limitation, the qualified form of offense which requires imposition of heavy punishment is considered on the basis of the evidences presented to the file.

(4) The maximum limit of the punishment assessed in the law for the offense is taken into account during determination of the periods mentioned in afore subsection. In offenses, where imposition of alternative punishment is in question, the punishment of imprisonment is taken as basis with regard to statute of limitation

(7) Statute of limitation may not be applicable in case of commission of offenses in abroad, which require heavy imprisonment, or imprisonment or imprisonment more than ten years.

Accordingly, in case that personal injury stemming from criminal offence we also need to take into account the provision which is mentioned above. Civil court will also consider prescription periods concerned above.

Gökhan Cindemir , Attorney At Law

After he completed his high school degree in Turkey, he went to Belgium with AFSintercultural exchange program and completed his high school degree in Belgium. Upon his return to Turkey, he obtained his law licence degree from Marmara University of Law Faculty of Istanbul, Turkey. During his university education, he had participated in Philip C.Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition on behalf of Marmara University, Istanbul. He became member of Istanbul Bar Association, then after he had been granted to a master’s degree, LL.M by Gent University of Belgium in the field of European and Comparative law. He completed his one year millitary duty at Legal Affairs Department of Central Command Headquartes in Ankara with Lieutenant Rank. He is specialized in all matters concerning International Private Law, European Law, Family Law, Employement Law, Real Estate Law, Penal Law and Tort Law. He speaks fluent English and has good command of Dutch and French. He is also authorized as a solicator, barrister.

Personal Injury Liability in Turkey

Personal Injury Liability in Turkey under Turkey Tort Law

Personal injury liability is well described under Tort Law Definition of Turkish Obligation Code. Under Turkish Law, there must be 4 conditions for tortius liability (in other words, personal injury liability).

  1. Acts Against Law
  2. Damage
  3. Causal Relation
  4. Negligence

 Act Against Law

 If a defective product damages a person, if someone falls into construction’s hole on the road due to lack of warning , etc. Accordingly in Turkish Law not only intentional acts against victim is covered by the law, additionally the acts which have omission character are included as an act against law. Therefore, personal injury must be arising from intentional act or acts stemming from negligence.

 It is also noteworthy to mention that as in all Roman based laws self-defence  is one of the exception for “act against law” principle. In case of harming third people as self-defence purpose will be not be considered as Act Against Law. Thus, self-defence is a legitimacy reason for personal injury cases.

 Damage

 Damage is a key factor in Turkey when determination of compensation amount will come to an issue.This may be material or immaterial damage. Generally in Turkish Court Practice, judges appoint an expert in order to determine compensation amount stemming from the damage. Forinstance, in case of a truck accident, traffic report which is written in the incident place will play a role to evaluate negligence level and experts who are specialized in personal compensation will determine the compensation amount.

 The amount of compensation shall be decided by the expert in two stages. The expert determines first the amount of the injury that the damaged person has actually suffered. The person claiming compensation has to prove the damage. The judge subsequently determines the amount of compensation after taking into account the circumstances and the degree of fault. Unlike Former Turkish Obligation Code in New Turkish Obligation Code, consideration of defendant’s (wrongdoer or tortfeasor) financial situation for determination compensation does not exist. Accordingly, the priorty and purpose of the law is to satisfy the injured person as much as possible. Such as loss of support related to family members, occurance of ability in daily life, permanent disability, contemporary disability, hospital expenses (in case that there is no social security registration), funeral expenses are all playing role in calculation of compensation amount.

 Casual Relation

The third condition of liability is the existence of proximate cause. There must be reasonable link between wrongdoer’s act and the injury to hold wrongdoer’s responsible. This casual relation must be evaluated under the principle of ordinary rules and circumstances of life.

 Negligence

Negligence levels are important in personal liability cases. Fault , defects and negligences are categorized as a level of “Severe” and “ Slight”. A person cannot be negligent unless he has ability to make fair judgments. The head of the family may be responsible for a minor’s act which caused a damage. A master is liable for damages caused by his employees or servants in the course of performing their duties, unless he proves that he exercised all reasonable in the circumstatances to precent such damage, or that the damage would have occured notwithstanding the exercise of such care. The modern trend in Turkey is to make the wrongdoer’s responsible for his acts.

There are some risky fields in life practice that also made lawmaker to pass a law to enable insurance companies for undertaking risks of possible damages. Forinstance, all vehicles are subjected obligatory insurance and personal damages stemming from traffic accidents must be compensated from these insurance companies (material compensation only) . Doctors and lawyers are entitled to obligatory insurance for the damages which may arise from their misconducts.

Reference: Turkish Code of Obligation and Introduction to Turkish Law edited by Tuğrul Ansay and Don Wallace.

tort law, personal injury liability

Gökhan Cindemir , Attorney At Law

After he completed his high school degree in Turkey, he went to Belgium with AFSintercultural exchange program and completed his high school degree in Belgium. Upon his return to Turkey, he obtained his law licence degree from Marmara University of Law Faculty of Istanbul, Turkey. During his university education, he had participated in Philip C.Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition on behalf of Marmara University, Istanbul. He became member of Istanbul Bar Association, then after he had been granted to a master’s degree, LL.M by Gent University of Belgium in the field of European and Comparative law. He completed his one year millitary duty at Legal Affairs Department of Central Command Headquartes in Ankara with Lieutenant Rank. He is specialized in all matters concerning International Private Law, European Law, Family Law, Employement Law, Real Estate Law, Penal Law and Tort Law. He speaks fluent English and has good command of Dutch and French. He is also authorized as a solicator, barrister.

gokhan@cindemir.av.tr

mobile 00905325680647

Debt Collection in Turkey

Author: Av. Gökhan Cindemir 

cindemir@cindemir.av.tr – 00905325680647

This article aims to explain the procedures regarding debt collection. There are two separate procedures in Turkey in order to follow your debt. 1. Debt Execution Procedure which will be provided by Administrative Body and 2. Litigation Procedure which will be examined by the Court.
As regards to the first method, component debt collection lawyer initiate debt execution procedure via debt execution administration after that administration submits order of payment to the debtor. If debtor shall object the order of payment by claiming the inexistence of debt within 7 days (duration of 7 days stems from ordinary debt / credit relationship, it is five days for the debt stemming from check and bonds) subsequent to submission of the letter, the execution process shall be frozen and the only way to proceed the execution process shall be filing a litigation case to the debtor company.

It is also noteworthy to mention that in case of the litigation decision shall be in favor of creditor, unfair objection to the debt during debt execution procedure shall be subjected to the penal fee as 40% amount of the debt. That penal fee must be awarded to the creditor. On the other hand, the party as a creditor can also file a litigation case directly regardless of initiating debt execution.

The administrative debt execution fee is 0.05% of the debt amount and almost 10 € extra fee.
As mentioned above in case of objection, litigation shall come to an issue. The litigation process shall be governed by the court with the consideration of the evidences such as invoices, contracts, correspondences, accounting books and related proofs. This process will also encompass hearings including claim and counter claim procedure. The court fee related to litigation shall be also dependent on the amount of the debt. 59/1000 of the amount will be the litigation and the posting, expert fees and other possible court fees will be included to it. According to the act of fees of Turkey, it is sufficient to remit court fee’s ¼ in order to initiate litigation in the beginning. The rest can be remitted in previous hearings in advance of the decision.

Litigation must be implemented by a Turkish Attorney on the basis of a valid power of attorney as debt execution procedure also requires. Power of attorney can be obtained from Turkish embassies and consulates by the Turkish legal entities or Turkish citizens. Foreigner citizens and legal entities must obtain from relevant authorities in their country which are capable of issuing power of attorney based on the country’s law. Having power of attorney from these authorities will not make the power of attorney as valid in Turkey by itself. Apostille stamp requires for validity of Power of Attorney to be used in Turkey or approval of the power of attorney via Turkish embassy or consulate will be necessary. In case that the country is not the party of The Hague convention enabling Apostille, the only way to make power of attorney valid will be approval from mentioned Turkish embassies.

If the country of creditor applies some restrictions for Turkish Citizens and Turkish legal entities for filing a case particularly litigation case in the jurisdiction of said country, Turkish court will request security deposit from the creditor. In case that judicial assistance agreement or relevant convention’s ratifications lacks between Turkey and third countries, there is a security deposit obligation (Cautio Judicatum Solvi) for foreign legal entities or real persons who intends to initiate a lawsuit or enforcement procedure in Turkey. (Article 97 of the Turkish Code of Civil Procedure and Article 32 of the Code of Private International Law and International Civil Procedure). There is no certain provision laying down the percentage of amount related to deposit, however in practice courts determines %15 of disputed amount as a security deposit.

A Judicial Assistance Agreement Exists between Turkey and the Countries Mentioned Below

Germany, N. Cyprus ,Albania, Kuwait, Austria ,Lithuania, Azerbaijan, Hungary Bulgaria, Macedonia, Czech Republic, Algeria ,Moldova, China, Mongolia, Morocco, Uzbekistan, Georgia, Poland, India, Romania, Croatia, Tajikistan, Iraq, Tunisia, Jordan, Yugoslavia, United Kingdom, Ukraine, Switzerland, Italy, Kazakhstan

There are also countries exempt from security deposit due to reciprocity principle in Turkish Private State Law Act. These countries do not apply any security deposit to Turkish citizens and legal entities in case of debt recovery proceeding, accordingly Turkey does not seek any security deposit obligation for mentioned below countries: Russia, Egypt, Chile, Finland, Peru, Libya, Syria.

Remittance of Security deposit can be proved with several ways such as remittance of the amount to Turkish central bank account in foreign currency, guarantee letter from a bank, pledge on a real state, guarantee letter approved by a Turkish notary and bill of exchange. In the end of case or enforcement procedure, security deposit must be refund to creditor by the court. Real reason behind security deposit is to protect Turkish debtor for possible damages by foreign entities during procedure.

debt collection in turkey, debt collection turkey, turkish law office , istanbul law office

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Attorney Gokhan Cindemir
He graduated from Anatolian High School of Karadeniz Eregli, after his graduation he studied in Belgium with AFS intercultural exchange program. He obtained his law license degree from Marmara University of Law Faculty. During his university education, he participated in Philip C. Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition on behalf of the Marmara University. After his admission to Istanbul Bar Association in 2009, he obtained master degree (LL.M) from Gent University / Belgium in the field of European and Comparative law. His master research was about Freedom of Establishment In Relation With Turkey and EEC in the frame of Ankara Agreement. He is specialized in International Private Law, European Law, Real Estate Law, Penal Law and Tort Law. He speaks fluent English and has good command of Dutch and French. He is also authorized as a solicitor, barrister.

Copyright Cindemir Law Office
More information about Cindemir Law Office

»

debt collection turkey , debt collection in turkey , debt collection istanbul

»